故意降低女生分数,只为多录男生!日本名校曝惊天丑闻

作者:左卓 来源: 中国日报网
2018-08-16 13:42:01
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“分数面前人人平等”,然而,日本一所名牌大学却给不同性别的考生设定了双重标准。

8月7日,日本东京医科大学(Tokyo Medical University)承认,为了限制女性入学比例,暗中降低了她们的考试分数。

故意降低女生分数,只为多录男生!日本名校曝惊天丑闻

在该大学今年的医学入学考试中,女性考生被减掉了20到30分,而男性考生则被加了20分。分数被篡改后,在171名通过的学生中,仅有30名为女性。

故意降低女生分数,只为多录男生!日本名校曝惊天丑闻

据报道,这一暗箱操作开始于2006年,甚至更早。在过去的20年中,女性通过国家医学考试的比例一直仅在30%左右。

事后,东京医科大学发表声明,称操纵分数的行为确实是错误的,保证不会再这样做。

“We sincerely apologize for the serious wrongdoing involving entrance exams that has caused concern and trouble for many people and betrayed the public’s trust,” said Tetsuo Yukioka, the school’s managing director.

大学的常务董事行岡哲男说,“我们真诚为操纵入学分数的严重错误行为道歉,这引发了很多担忧,为很多人带来了麻烦,背叛了公众的信任。”

故意降低女生分数,只为多录男生!日本名校曝惊天丑闻
 
大学还称,会考虑重新录取实际通过考试但被拒的学生,但并没有解释具体如何操作。

The school said it would consider retroactively admitting students who otherwise would have passed the exams, but did not explain how it would do so.

大学称会考虑重新录取本应通过考试的学生,但未解释具体如何操作。

据悉,操纵分数一事是该大学前负责人Masahiko Usui和Mamoru Suzuki一手策划的。

两人事后辩称,女性医生会为了结婚生子而放弃医疗工作,从而造成医生短缺,他们是不得已才采取了这一措施。

With brutally long working hours and demanding schedules at the university’s affiliated hospitals, these institutions want to predominantly hire male physicians as it is believed they are less likely to leave the medical profession compared to women.

医科大学附属医院需要进行长时间、高强度的工作,医院认为,跟女性相比,男性更不容易离职,因此,更希望雇佣男性内科医生。

虽然这种说法获得了部分业内人士的赞同,但却激起了更多人的愤怒和不满,他们在东京医科大学门前抗议,呼吁推进性别平等。

《外交学者》(The Diplomat)称:

The scandal has sparked outrage, opening public debate on the value of women’s societal contribution where instead of supporting women in their careers, TMU has reinforced the notion that women are a waste of investment and are better off bearing sole responsibility for domestic and child rearing tasks.

这一丑闻激起民愤,公众纷纷就女性在社会贡献方面的价值展开讨论,东京医科大学的做法不但没能支持女性追求自己的事业,反而强化了一个固有观念,即对女性的投资是一种浪费,她们只要把相夫教子的职责做好就好了。

这一丑闻也惊动了日本政府。日本文部科学大臣林芳正称会及时彻查入学考试中的暗箱操作。

Education Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi said his ministry will conduct an emergency survey targeting all colleges and universities which have a department of medicine to make sure fairness is maintained in their entrance exams.

日本文部科学大臣林芳正称,将会在所有开设医科专业的大学开展紧急调查,确保入学考试的公平性。

日本总务相野田圣子将东京医科大学的做法描述为,极为令人担忧和震惊(extremely alarming),并宣布要在所有医科大学中整顿女性歧视问题。

据悉,东京医科大学性别歧视现象是在一桩贪腐案件中被顺藤摸瓜,连带揭露出来的。

东京地区检察官办公室(The Tokyo District Public Prosecutors' Office)称,去年五月,时任文部科学省科学技术学术政策局局长佐野太给东京医科大学开后门,在援助私立大学项目中为学校提供便利,作为交换,他的儿子入学考试时获得了49分的加分。目前,涉事的三人均被起诉。

在调查这件贪腐案时,记者发现了该校录取比例的可疑之处,从而揭发了入学考试中的性别歧视问题。

长久以来,日本一直存在性别歧视现象。通过操纵分数来边缘化女性的做法竟发生在东京医科大学这样一所名气斐然的高等院校,令人震惊。

而据日媒报道,在日本,进行暗箱操作、打压报考女生的,不仅仅是东京医科大学一家。

《读卖新闻》8月12日发布的一项调查称,对日本81所有医学部的大学的男女录取率进行比较后发现,至少有七成以上的医学部存在这一问题。

安倍政府在过去的几年中采取了多项措施,宣扬要建设“一个所有女性都能发光的社会”(“a society where all women shine”)。然而,这不应只是一个空洞无用的口号。

《日本时报》(Japan Times)等主流媒体就此事发文,批评日本的性别歧视现状。

Choosing less qualified men over more competent women has been seen as an easy short-term solution since these men are evidently willing to slave away more than their female counterparts.

因为男性比女性更能吃苦,而放弃更有能力的女性,选择资格稍欠的男性,这只是一个为图方便的短视之举。

The long-term impact, however, is devastating. Not only does it deprive women of deserved and well-earned opportunities, it also lowers the quality of health care in Japan.

但从长远来看,此举是得不偿失的。这不仅剥夺了女性应得的高薪工作机会,还降低了日本的医疗水平。

By preventing half of Japan’s much needed working population, namely women, from making meaningful economic and societal contributions, we are allowing Japan’s economic growth engine to stall and permitting the slow decay of society.

这种做法限制了日本急需的半数劳动力,即女性,做出经济和社会贡献,日本的经济发展会因此停滞,整个社会也会逐渐堕落。

看完了这次性别歧视丑闻的前因后果,那么问题来了,日本的职业女性还面临哪些困境?

经济合作与发展组织(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)的一项调查表明,尽管日本成年女性的受教育程度居世界前列,近50%有大学文凭,但她们的才能并没有得到应有的发挥。在医生等高技能职业中,女性的占比出奇的低,例如,女性内科医师只占了该行业的21%。

造成上述现象的原因不仅仅是入学分数被操纵,还有应聘工作时的性别歧视,高强度长时间的工作环境和日本社会对女性的角色限制。

➤ 应聘时存在歧视女性的现象

It is no secret that many companies favor male candidates over female candidates in their recruiting process.

许多公司在招聘过程中偏爱男性申请人,这已经不是什么秘密了。

Some companies openly comment on how female candidates tend to score higher than male counterparts in screening tests and therefore they need to lower the bar for men in order to keep “an ideal gender ratio.”

有的公司会公开称,女性申请人在筛选测试中通常比男性的分数更高,但为了维持“一个理想的性别比”,他们会降低男性入选的门槛。

➤ 工作强度太大,对需要养育孩子的女性而言很不友好

有媒体报道,70%的女性在有了孩子后离开了工作岗位,因为日本的工作时间太长,难以兼顾养育孩子。

不少女性医务工作人员在此次丑闻曝光后发声,道出了自己的辛酸事。

日本女性医疗工作联合协会主管,产科医生Kyoko Tanebe指出,医生这一职业预设要“无私奉献”("selfless devotion" ),并要工作很长时间,这些都为需要生养儿女的女性带来了麻烦。

一名东京的45岁的女性医疗工作者说,日本的医疗领域长久以来一直对女性很不友好:

Many women who wanted to keep working ended up quitting. She herself had to leave a university hospital because she was not allowed to take a childcare leave after giving birth, she said.

很多想要继续工作的女性最终都放弃了。她本人由于不被准许产假而被迫离开了大学医院。

故意降低女生分数,只为多录男生!日本名校曝惊天丑闻

甚至有公司为女性职工安排了可以怀孕的时间表,违反规定还要受罚。

Earlier this year, a Japanese woman was reprimanded by her boss for becoming pregnant before it was her “turn,” going against a timetable that dictated when women employees were allowed to marry and have children, according to media reports.

媒体报道,今年早些时候,一名日本女性因违反所在公司给女性规定的结婚生子时间表,在“轮到”她之前提前怀孕而受到了上司的责骂。

然而,即使这一操作是非法的,女性上诉后也只能获得微薄的补偿金。

➤ 日本社会期待女性照顾家人

除了养育孩子,日本的女性还要做绝大部分的家务活和照顾老人的工作。

剑桥大学的现代日本研究员Brigitte Steger说,

“Women are being harassed for being selfish for taking time out to have children or look after them and for being inconsiderate towards their fellow employees — while women are also criticized for being selfish and not having children."

“女性因为腾出时间生育和照顾孩子被指为自私,因为这是对她们同事的不体贴;然而,如果女性不生育孩子,也会被批评为自私。”

《日本时报》评论称,要改善日本医疗领域性别不公的现状,需改变工作环境和社会文化。

An improvement in Japan’s legal framework or administrative policies to promote gender equality will not be effective without an accompanying change in the broader work environment and culture for both men and women.

仅完善日本的法律框架和行政制度是不足以提高性别平等的,必须要在两性的工作环境和文化方面做出相应的改变。

日本女性医疗工作者协会(Japan Medical Women's Association)会长Yoshiko Maeda说,医院要做的是改善女性医疗工作者的工作环境,而不是担心女性会离开职位(it is necessary to improve the work environment for female doctors rather than fearing women will leave jobs)。

虽然进行劳工改革以促进性别平等会带来短暂的阵痛,威胁到日本男性的既有利益,但这所谓的既有利益本就是建立在性别歧视上的畸形不公的现状。

评论称:

Gender discrimination is much more than just unfair treatment for women. It is an embarrassing blight on this country. The dignity of the nation is being questioned.

性别歧视不仅仅是对女性的不公对待,更是令人羞耻的国家弊病。国家的尊严因此遭到质疑。

Men and women, young and old, political leaders and business executives all have to unite and stamp out this avoidable injustice.

男性和女性,青年和老年,政治领袖和商业主管,都应合力解决这项可以避免的社会不公。

每个人应有平等接受教育和获得工作的机会,性别不应成为女性发展道路上的障碍。

(来源:中国日报双语新闻编辑部)

 

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