“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

来源:中国日报网
2018-06-25 14:56:15
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“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

2016年6月23日,英国人用一场浩浩荡荡的公投,正式决定与欧盟(European Union)分道扬镳。

两年后的6月23日,上万名反对“脱欧”(anti-Brexit)的抗议者涌上了伦敦街头,呼吁这个国家重新做出选择。

英国人究竟怎么看待“脱欧”两周年呢?快戳下面这个视频,看看他们是怎么说的!

“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

点击图片观看视频

其实,“脱欧”这个词不只是近几年才进入大家视野的,早在2013年,英国时任首相戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)就提出了“脱欧”的概念。那么英国是如何一步步走向今天的呢?

双语君(微信ID:Chinadaily_Mobile)精心为你整理了关于“脱欧”的必备知识,带你一起看懂英国“脱欧”两周年。

2013.01.22 首相卡梅伦首次提及“脱欧”

2013年1月22日当天,戴维·卡梅伦针对英国与欧盟的关系发表了他准备已久的演讲。

“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

BBC的报道中提到:

Mr Cameron said he planned to renegotiate parts of the UK's relationship with Europe and put that changed membership package to the British people in an in-out referendum after the next general election, by the end of 2017.

他计划在2017年底之前重新针对英国与欧洲关系进行谈判,并且如果成功连任,将举行全民公投。

为什么他会发表这样一番言论呢?

Mr Cameron had been facing mounting pressure from within the Eurosceptic ranks of his own Conservative Party, and the UK Independence Party, which is unhappy with the current relationship between the UK and the European Union. For months now, the promise has been that these questions will all be answered in a big speech.

因为卡梅伦在自己的保守党和英国独立党中面临越来越大的压力,议员们对目前英国和欧盟之间的关系感到不满。数月以来,卡梅伦只能保证这个问题将在一个演讲中得到回答。

果不其然,他话音刚落就遭到了欧盟成员国们的强烈反对。

2015年5月8日,卡梅伦成功连任首相(serve for another term of office),英国女王也在19天后宣布了“欧盟公投法案”(EU Referendum Bill),正式确认了英国脱欧公投。这场被称作“Brexit”的风暴,从此拉开序幕。

2016.02.20 内阁确认公投日期

卡梅伦在欧盟峰会后召开内阁会议(Cabinet meeting),并且告诉英国民众:

“I will go to Parliament and propose that the British people decide our future in Europe through an in-out referendum on Thursday, 23 June.”

“我将向议会提议,让英国人民在6月23日星期四通过一个是走还是留的公民投票来决定我们在欧洲的未来。”

随之而来的一个月,公投进入了准备期。

而在举行投票的前一个月,卡梅伦现身英国城市威特尼(Witney),他改变了自己的立场站在了“留欧”的一边,举行了“反脱欧集会”(anti-Brexit March)。

2016.06.23 正式举行全民公投

Britain is this morning heading out of the European Union after a historic referendum vote for “Out” stunned the world.

当日早上,英国在历史性的投票中决定离开欧盟,这一消息震惊了世界。

The ultra-narrow margin of victory of 52 percent to 48 percent left the nation split down the middle and triggered Prime Minister David Cameron’s resignation.

51.9%对48.1%的小胜使得这个国家陷入了中间分裂的状态,首相卡梅伦也因此辞职。

英国脱欧经过了3年的酝酿,终于在这一天做出了选择。

英国脱欧两周年大事记

2017.03.29

Theresa May triggers Article 50, which starts the clock on the process of the UK leaving the EU after she became prime minister

特蕾莎·梅在出任英国首相后启动了《里斯本条约》第50条款,英国脱欧开始倒计时。

“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

▼ 2017.06.26

Formal negotiations on withdrawal begin between the UK and the EU.

英国关于脱欧与欧盟开始正式谈判,谈判的三个重点是公民权利、分手费和南北爱尔兰实际边境问题。

▼ 2017.12.15

The EU agrees to move on to the second phase of negotiations after an agreement is reached on the Brexit “divorce bill”, Irish border, and EU citizens' rights.

欧盟同意就英国脱欧第一阶段谈判达成协议后进入第二阶段。

▼ 2018.03.19

The UK and the EU take decisive steps in their negotiations. Agreements include dates for a transitional period after Brexit day, the status of EU citizens in the UK before and after that time, and a policy concerning fishing rights.

英国和欧盟在谈判中采取决定性步骤。协议包括英国脱欧之后的过渡期,欧盟公民在此之前和之后的地位以及涉及捕鱼业的相关政策。

▼ 2019.03.29

Brexit day – The UK will end its membership of the European Union at 11 pm local time and enter a transitional period.

退欧日——英国将于格林威治标准时间2019年3月29日晚23:00正式退出欧盟并进入过渡期

▼ 2020.12.31

The transitional period is due to end and the new economic and political relationship between the UK and the EU will begin.

过渡期结束,英国和欧盟之间新的经济和政治关系将开始。

英国脱欧关键词

《里斯本条约》第50条款 Article 50

英国脱欧的第一步,就是触发《里斯本条约》的第50条款。

《卫报》在报道中说:

It’s only 250 words long but it has instantly become the defining clause in a war of words between Britain and the EU.

它只有区区250字,但却成为了英国和欧盟口水战中的界定条款。

Article 50 says: “Any member state may decide to withdraw from the union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.”

第50条中有一条写道:“任何成员国都可以根据自己的体制要求选择退出(欧洲)联盟。”

It gives the leaving country two years to negotiate an exit deal and once it's set in motion it can't be stopped except by unanimous consent of all member states.

它给决定离开的国家两年时间谈判退出协议,一旦条款被触发,除非得到所有成员国的一致同意,否则不能停止。

No country had previously invoked article 50.

此前,没有任何(欧盟)成员国启动过该条款。

“脱欧”两周年,英国现在还好吗?关于“脱欧”的最全知识点总结!

《欧盟退出法案》(旧称《废除条约草案》,Great Repeal Bill)

It's crunch time for the government's EU Withdrawal Bill - the bill that aims to ensure European law will no longer apply in the UK after Brexit.

所谓的《欧盟退出法案》——就是一个确保英国脱欧后不再适用欧洲法律的法案。

All existing EU legislation will be copied across into domestic UK law to ensure a smooth transition on the day after Brexit.

所有现有的欧盟立法都将被复制到英国国内法律中,以确保退欧后的顺利过渡。

简单来说,这一法案是要确保英国不会把原有适用于欧盟的法律带入脱欧后,从而建立属于英国自己的法律法制。

除此以外,英国还声明要在脱欧后退出单一市场和关税同盟。那么这两个词又是什么意思呢?

单一市场 Single Market

The European Union's single market is perhaps the most ambitious type of trade cooperation because, in addition to eliminating tariffs, quotas, or taxes on trade, it also includes the free movement of goods, services, capital, and people.

欧盟的单一市场也许是最雄心勃勃的贸易合作。它不但取消关税、配额和贸易税外,还包括着货物、服务、资本和人员的自由流动。

A single market strives to remove so-called "non-tariff barriers" - different rules on packaging, safety, and standards – and many other rules are also abolished with common rules and regulations applying across the area.

单一市场力图消除“非关税壁垒” ——关于包装、安全和标准的不同规定,也有许多其他规定被废除,它让整个领域都适用相同的规则和条例。

关税同盟 Customs Union

The EU is not only a single market - it is also a customs union.

欧盟不仅是一个单一市场——它也是一个关税同盟。

The countries have clubbed together and agreed to apply the same tariffs to goods that originate outside the union.

成员国们一致向来自欧盟外的货品征取相同的关税。

Once goods have cleared customs in one country, they can be shipped to others in the union without further tariffs being imposed.

一旦货品在一个成员国入关后,就可以免税进入其他成员国。

英国脱欧有何意义

➤ 脱欧对于英国和欧洲意味着什么?

Critics of Brexit say the UK deciding to go off on its own could create widespread job losses and economic uncertainty. Those advocating Brexit say breaking free will mean the nation can reduce taxes paid by its citizens and reduce the burden of immigration.

持批判观点的人认为,如果英国决定脱欧,可能会造成广泛的失业和经济不确定性。然而,支持脱欧的人声称,通过脱欧,国家可以减少其公民的税收并减轻移民带来的负担。

The EU is Great Britain’s largest trading partner. When the UK leaves the 28-nation partnership, its businesses may find they have far greater freedom to trade with companies around the world. However, if enterprises in the new EU are reluctant to do business with British firms, the UK companies could face substantial headwinds.

目前,欧盟是英国最大的贸易伙伴。如果英国离开,企业也许会在与全球其他公司贸易的时候更加自由。但是,如果届时欧盟的企业不愿意与英国的公司开展业务,那么这些公司可能会面临很大的阻力。

Many international companies seem to be erring on the side of caution and drawing up plans to relocate away from the UK and into mainland Europe.

现在,许多跨国公司都在谨慎行事,并且制定了从英国迁往欧洲大陆的计划。

err on the side of caution:宁求稳妥,不愿涉险

Morgan Stanley has confirmed it is moving up to 10 percent of its United Kingdom workforce, and Goldman Sachs has also shown signs of having itchy feet, gradually increasing its presence in mainland Europe.

摩根士丹利已经证实,正在转移大约10%的英国员工(去欧洲),高盛公司也有迹象表明要逐渐将重心向欧洲转移。

Tarek Al-Wazir, the economy minister for the state of Hesse in Germany, is confident many companies will relocate to Hamburg.

德国黑森州(德国金融之都法兰克福所在地)的经济部长Tarek Al-Wazir坦言,他相信将会有很多公司搬到汉堡。

➤ 脱欧对于中国意味着什么?

Early in 2018, Xinhua news service reported that Britain was China’s second-largest trading partner within the EU and that China was Britain’s second-largest non-EU trading partner.

新华社在2018年初报道称,英国是中国在欧盟内的第二大贸易伙伴,而中国也是英国第二大非欧盟贸易伙伴。

Tony Samuels, a solicitor and notary public in the city of London, who has worked closely with many of China’s leading financial institutions, told China Daily that, in a turbulent world, the ability to take a broad view, and stability, are two key elements to ensure security. He said these factors make Brexit an opportunity for Sino-British ties to become stronger than ever.

Tony Samuels是伦敦的一名律师和公证人,他与许多中国金融机构都有密切的合作,他告诉中国日报,在这个动荡的世界里,能够有更宽广的视野和更确切的稳定性,是保障安全的两个关键因素。这些都是使英国脱欧成为中英关系发展更加密切的因素。

“With or without Brexit, Shanghai deals more with London than anywhere else in the world, so pre- or post-Brexit, China is crucial to our trade going forward. The EU and USA are our main trading partners at the moment, but my guess is that in 15 or so years, China might overtake them both.”

“无论英国脱欧与否,上海与伦敦的贸易量远远超过世界其他地区。因此,无论是在脱欧前还是脱欧后,中国对我们的贸易前景都至关重要。欧盟和美国目前是我们主要的贸易伙伴,但我猜,在15年左右的时间里中国可能会超过它们。”

“China is going to be a major player here and vice-versa.”

“中国将成为这里的主角,英国之于中国也一样。”

“I think Britain will have a specific trade agreement with China, especially in finance and technology.”

“我想英国和中国会达成一个特定的贸易协议,特别是在金融和技术方面。”

“That’s what I’d like to see, a specific agreement with China that works for both countries for many years to come.”

“这就是我希望看到的——与中国达成的一项具体协议,未来很多年里两国都会受益于这个协议。”

(来源:中国日报欧洲分社

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