双语新闻:如果这些习惯你全没有,那你一定是超人

作者:张曦 来源:中国日报网
2018-04-26 16:35:30
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Even smart people can make terrible decisions.

即使是最聪明的人也会做出糟糕的决定。

Generally, it's not because they spent time deliberating and somehow arrived at the wrong answer. It's because they didn't spend any time thinking at all.

总体而言,这些错误之所以发生,并不是因为他们花了时间思考却得出错误的答案,相反,这是因为他们根本没有认真思考!也就是说,人们并没意识到自己做出了这样的决定。

For example: You might automatically keep your phone on your desk at work, or grab a smoothie as a go-to "healthy" snack. But these aren't the wisest choices you could make.

譬如:你也许会在工作时无意识地将手机放在桌上;或是在不知不觉中拿起了手边的“健康”零食……这些选择都在你不曾注意到的瞬间发生了,但它们并不是你最明智的决定。

Below, we've listed some of the easiest traps to fall into, at the office and at home.

接下来就让CD君告诉大家一些在办公室和家中容易让人做出错误决定的“陷阱”。

错误决定之一:Tackling your easiest tasks first

总是先做最简单的事

Do the hard stuff first.

正确的做法是:先完成最难的事。

Some people call this strategy "eating the frog", based on a quotation attributed to Mark Twain: "Eat a live frog first thing in the morning and nothing worse will happen to you the rest of the day."

有人将这个策略命名为“吃青蛙”,这来源于马克·吐温的一句名言:“早上起来的第一件事就是先吃掉一只活青蛙,然后接下来的其它事情都不足为惧了。”

Some researchers say willpower decreases as the day goes on, so it makes sense to work on tasks that require lots of focus and concentration in the morning. Others disagree that willpower is a finite resource.

一些研究者认为,人的意志力会在一天中逐渐减弱,所以人们应该在上午完成需要注意力的任务。而另一些研究者则认为,意志力在一天内的任何时间点都具有同样的力量。

If nothing else, it makes practical sense to start with the hardest tasks, since you never know what scheduling conflicts will pop up later on.

率先完成较难的工作很实用,因为你不会知道接下来是不是有其它任务。

错误决定之二:Constantly checking your email

频繁查看邮箱

The siren call of your inbox can be hard to resist.

若是邮箱传来提示查收邮件的通知,你一定会忍不住点开查看。

Yet research suggests that switching between tasks — say, doing research and checking for new email — takes up to 40 percent longer than doing one at a time. Even when you think you're being more productive by multitasking, you're probably not.

研究表明,人们如果在工作的同时查阅邮件,会比只工作或只看邮件多花费40%的时间。你可能认为自己一心多用很有效率,但事实并非如此。

One simple solution, from psychologist Ron Friedman, is to silence your phone so you don't receive email alerts or to close your email tab while you're working on something important. Designate specific times to check and respond to email in batches.

心理学家罗恩·弗里德曼告诉大家一个简单的解决办法,那就是做重要工作时将手机静音或关闭邮箱通知,并在固定的时间点一次性检查和回复所有邮件。

错误决定之三:Keeping your phone on your desk at work

工作时总把手机放在桌上

Turning your phone on "vibrate" isn't enough. Actually, turning your phone off isn't even enough.

你以为你可以拒绝手机的诱惑吗?事实是:把手机调成振动还不够,甚至连彻底关机也不能解决问题!

Research published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research suggests that the mere presence of your cell phone nearby can hurt your cognitive performance — even if you're unaware of its influence. The best solution appears to be keeping your phone in another room entirely.

在消费者研究协会杂志上的一项研究表明:手机只需短暂出现即可降低你的认知质量——尽管你并没意识到它的影响。最好的解决方法是把手机放在别的房间里,你的意志力远比不上一面墙!

错误决定之四:Staying seated all day

在办公室坐上一整天

Office jobs aren't exactly conducive to getting a lot of physical activity.

室内办公真的会大大减少人们进行身体活动的机会。

But you don't need to be up and about for hours at a time. A growing body of research suggests that even if you get up and move around for a few minutes several times a day, you're improving your overall health.

但即使是这样,你也没必要一有机会就连续运动好几个小时。越来越多的研究证明,我们只要每天多起身走动就可以改善健康状态。

Recent research, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association and cited by The New York Times, found that people who were active for a total of about an hour a day had half the mortality risk of people who didn't. And it didn't matter whether they were active in 5-minute increments or in longer chunks.

近日,刊登在美国心脏协会杂志并被《纽约时报》转载的一项研究发现:每天累计活动一小时的人的死亡率,是那些不这样做的人的一半。运动周期以五分钟或是更长时间为单位并不重要。

错误决定之五:Staring at a screen for hours at a time

连续数小时盯着电脑屏幕

Staring at a computer all day can lead to "digital eye strain", resulting in symptoms like dryness and blurryness, Business Insider's Erin Brodwin reported.

商业内幕网的艾琳·布罗德文表示,长时间盯着电脑屏幕可以导致“数字眼疲劳”,症状是眼睛干涩和视线模糊。

Enter the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds, Rahul Khurana, the clinical spokesman for the American Academy of Ophthalmologists told Business Insider's Kevin Loria.

美国科学院眼科发言人拉胡尔·库拉纳表示,我们可以通过“三个20”的原则来缓解眼睛疲劳:每隔20分钟注视至少20英尺远的物体,每次至少保持20秒。

错误决定之六:Waiting until late afternoon to take a break from work

一直工作到将近傍晚才“中场休息”

Take that break mid-morning instead.

你应该试着将休息时间提早到上午十点左右。

A 2015 study published in the Journal of Applied Psychology suggests that the more time that's passed since the beginning of the workday, the less useful a break is. Breaks taken earlier in the day are more likely to replenish resources, including energy, concentration, and motivation.

2015年应用心理学杂志上的一项研究表明,持续工作时间的越久,休息的质量就越差。早些休息可以恢复人的各项心理资源,如精力,注意力和工作动力。

Interestingly, that same study found you don't necessarily have to engage in non-work-related activities during a break. Just make sure you're doing something that you like to do and you choose to do. In other words, making some headway on a work project you're excited about could be even more restorative than browsing social media.

有趣的是,这项研究还发现,只要你选择了喜欢的事,那么你在休息时的活动没必要彻底剥离开工作。换句话说,如果你喜欢手头的工作,那么取得工作上的进展比刷朋友圈更能恢复你的精力。

错误决定之七:Listening to music while you work

工作期间听音乐

You might feel more productive when you listen to music while doing focused work — but you're probably not really.

你可能觉得边听音乐边工作会让你更专注——但其实不是这样。

In 2015, neuroscientist and musician Daniel Levitin, who cited a growing body of research suggesting that, in almost every case, your performance on intellectual tasks (think, reading or writing) suffers considerably when you listen to music.

2015年神经医学家兼音乐家丹尼尔·拉文廷曾表示:大部分情况下,听音乐会严重影响思考、阅读或写作的效果。

The exception is when you're performing tasks that are repetitive or monotonous, such as when you're working on an assembly line or driving for long periods of time. In that case, listening to music can perk you up.

例外的情况是:如果你干的是重复而单调的活儿,比如在流水线上工作或长途开车,那么听音乐就能使你重振精神。

Levitin said that a better bet is to listen to music for about 10 to 15 minutes before you start doing focused work, which can put you in a better mood and relax you.

拉文廷认为,开工前听10到15分钟音乐会让你进入一个更轻松的状态。

错误决定之八:Choosing foods that seem nutritious — but aren't really

选择那些

看似很有营养实则不然的食物

Don't believe the hype — know the facts about your food.

别相信那些华而不实的广告词——学会真正了解你选择的食物。

Business Insider's Erin Brodwin put together a list of foods that you think are good for you, but aren't and foods that you think are bad for you, but aren't really.

商业内幕网的艾琳·布罗德文列出一串清单,注明了那些貌似健康,实则有害的食物,以及那些貌似有害,实则健康的食物。

For example, bottled juices and fast-casual smoothies might seem nutritious, when in fact they're generally loaded with sugar and calories. Meanwhile, many people think eating eggs will lead to high cholesterol, but that's not true for most of us.

比如,瓶装果汁和冰沙看上去营养十足,但实际上它们含有大量糖分和卡路里。同时,还有人认为吃鸡蛋会提升胆固醇,但其实大部分人不会有这种反应。

错误决定之九:Passively browsing social media

被动地使用社交媒体

Scientists say there are two different ways to use Facebook: passive and active.

科学家表示,有两类人在使用社交媒体,一种人被动,一种人主动。

Active use involves direct exchanges with others. Think posting status updates and commenting on other people's posts. Passive use is about consuming information, like by scrolling through your newsfeed. Most of the time, we use Facebook passively.

主动的用户积极与他人交谈,更新动态并在其他人的动态下留言。而被动的用户只是简单地滑动鼠标浏览信息。其实大多数时候,我们都是被动的社交媒体使用者。

Yet a study published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General suggests that passive Facebook use can make us feel worse. That's possibly because we feel jealous of everyone's (seemingly) glamorous lives that they're broadcasting publicly.

《实验心理学》杂志上刊登的一项研究发现:被动关注社交媒体会让我们的心情更糟。这很可能是因为,被动用户嫉妒别人在社交平台上展现的美好生活。

So instead of merely browsing, consider sending a message to an old friend or commenting on someone's happy family photo.

因此比起只是浏览信息,我们更应该主动给老朋友发信息,或评论别人的家庭照。

错误决定之十:Escalating a fight with your partner

升级你和伴侣之间的战火

When your partner makes a snide comment, it's all too easy to fire back with something cruel and hurtful.

当遭受来自另一半的嘲笑时,我们很容易口不择言地反击。

Try to curb that impulse.

但是,请抑制这种不明智的冲动。

Marriage and family therapist Hal Runkel previously told Business Insider that the most powerful word to defuse a conflict is "ouch". You're expressing vulnerability instead of putting up defenses, while encouraging your partner to do the same.

婚姻关系和家庭关系医师Hal Runkel表示,平息怒火最有力的回答其实是一声“哎哟”,这是示弱而非防御,并鼓励了你的伴侣也这样做。

Meanwhile, couples therapist Esther Perel previously told Business Insider that one way to de-escalate a conflict is to reflect back what your partner is saying and show some empathy. Tell your partner that you understand where they're coming from — even if you don't yet.

另外,婚姻治疗师伊斯特·佩雷尔也表示,缓解夫妻矛盾的方法就是站在对方的角度,用同理心去理解他说的话,告诉你的伴侣你明白他生气的原因,虽然实际上你可能并不知道。

错误决定之十一:Matching with dozens of people on dating apps — but not messaging any of them

在你的交友软件上添加一大堆朋友却从不与他们交流

Online dating doesn't have to be a game of speed: racking up as many matches as you can in as little time as possible.

网络约会不是一场速度的比赛:在尽可能短的时间里找到尽可能多的情侣配对。

In fact, the Verge reported that Helen Fisher, biological anthropologist and chief scientific officer at Match.com, said the biggest problem with dating apps is "cognitive overload".

事实上,美国科技网站the Verge报道过生物人类学家、美国婚恋网站Match.com首席科技官海伦·费舍的话:约会软件最大的问题就是过多的配对选择会让人产生“认知超载”。

Fisher added that "the brain is not well built to choose between hundreds or thousands of alternatives". She advises people to stop when they've hit nine matches and consider those.

费舍补充道:“我们的大脑无法在成千上万的可能性中做出选择”,她建议大家:“如果你已经找到大约九个配对,那么就可以做出选择了。”

错误决定之十二:Staying up too late

熬夜至很晚

Scientists have identified a common phenomenon they call "bedtime procrastination": Failing to go to bed at the intended time, while no external circumstances prevent a person from doing so.

科学家发现,在人群中存在一个名为“睡觉拖延症”的普遍现象:即使没有外界干扰,人们也似乎总是无法按时上床睡觉。

For example, you keep watching one episode after another of a not-that-interesting TV show.

例如,你可能看了一集又一集的无聊电视剧,就是不去睡觉。

This isn't just silly — it can be dangerous. As Business Insider previously reported, in some cases sleep loss can be just as deadly as smoking.

这个习惯不仅很蠢还很危险。商业内幕网曾报道过,某种意义上,睡眠不足可以像抽烟一样致命。

Turn off the TV and get ready for bed. You'll be grateful tomorrow, and years later.

所以,请及时关掉电视上床睡觉。这样做你每天都会心情愉悦。

(来源:中国日报双语新闻编辑部)

 

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